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      [170] Morris to Penn, 1 Jan. 1755.

      "Didn't he know already?"I was told--with quite a pop, so probably he was a fatter Trustee.

      V2 any circumstance whatever. The burghers of this city have already put their goods and furniture in places of safety. The old men, women, and children hold themselves ready to leave town. My firmness is generally applauded. It has penetrated every heart; and each man says aloud: 'Canada, our native land, shall bury us under its ruins before we surrender to the English!' This is decidedly my own determination, and I shall hold to it inviolably." He launches into high praise of the contractor Cadet, whose zeal for the service of the King and the defence of the colony he declares to be triumphant over every difficulty. It is necessary, he adds, that ample supplies of all kinds should be sent out in the autumn, with the distribution of which Cadet offers to charge himself, and to account for them at their first cost; but he does not say what prices his disinterested friend will compel the destitute Canadians to pay for them. [705]been towards me, I suppose he has a right to be an arbitrary,

      The French on their side made counter-accusations. The captive traders were examined on oath before La Jonquire, and one of them, John Patton, is reported to have said that Croghan had instigated Indians to kill Frenchmen. [55] French officials declared that other English traders were guilty of the same practices; and there is very little doubt that the charge was true.Judy

      La Galissonire no longer governed Canada. He had been honorably recalled, and the Marquis de la Jonquire sent in his stead. [47] La Jonquire, like his predecessor, was a naval officer of high repute; 78Forbes was in total ignorance of the strength and movements of the enemy. The Indians reported their numbers to be at least equal to his own; but nothing could be learned from them with certainty, by reason of their inveterate habit of lying. Several scouting-parties of whites were therefore sent forward, of which the most successful was that of a young Virginian officer, accompanied by a sergeant and five Indians. At a little distance from the French fort, the Indians stopped to paint themselves and practise incantations. The chief warrior of the party then took certain charms from an otter-skin bag and tied them about the necks of the other Indians. On that of the officer he hung the otter-skin itself; while to the sergeant he gave a small packet of paint from the same mystic receptacle. "He told us," reports the officer, "that none of us could be shot, for those things would turn the balls from us; and then shook hands with us, and told us to go and fight like men." Thus armed against fate, they mounted the high ground afterwards called Grant's Hill, where, covered by trees and bushes, they had a good view of the fort, and saw plainly that the reports of the French force were greatly exaggerated. [653]

      It's 8.30 now, and I am about to blow out my candle and try to go

      84He repaired to Rochelle, where two ships of the royal navy were waiting his arrival, embarked in 187 one of them, and sailed for the New World. An heroic remedy had been prepared for the sickness of Canada, and Frontenac was to be the surgeon. The cure, however, was not of his contriving. Denonville had sent Callires, his second in command, to represent the state of the colony to the court, and beg for help. Callires saw that there was little hope of more troops or any considerable supply of money; and he laid before the king a plan, which had at least the recommendations of boldness and cheapness. This was to conquer New York with the forces already in Canada, aided only by two ships of war. The blow, he argued, should be struck at once, and the English taken by surprise. A thousand regulars and six hundred Canadian militia should pass Lake Champlain and Lake George in canoes and bateaux, cross to the Hudson and capture Albany, where they would seize all the river craft and descend the Hudson to the town of New York, which, as Callires stated, had then about two hundred houses and four hundred fighting men. The two ships were to cruise at the mouth of the harbor, and wait the arrival of the troops, which was to be made known to them by concerted signals, whereupon they were to enter and aid in the attack. The whole expedition, he thought, might be accomplished in a month; so that by the end of October the king would be master of all the country. The advantages were manifold. The Iroquois, deprived of English arms and ammunition, would be at the mercy of the French; the question of English rivalry in the 188 west would be settled for ever; the king would acquire a means of access to his colony incomparably better than the St. Lawrence, and one that remained open all the year; and, finally, New England would be isolated, and prepared for a possible conquest in the future.



      Jealousy of Vaudreuil ? He asks for Montcalm's Recall ? His Discomfiture ? Scene at the Governor's House ? Disgust of Montcalm ? The Canadians Despondent ? Devices to encourage them ? Gasconade of the Governor ? Deplorable State of the Colony ? Mission of Bougainville ? Duplicity of Vaudreuil ? Bougainville at Versailles ? Substantial Aid refused to Canada ? A Matrimonial Treaty ? Return of Bougainville ? Montcalm abandoned by the Court ? His Plans of Defence ? Sad News from Candiac ? Promises of Vaudreuil.But how can one be very respectful to a person who


      Sir Edmund Andros now reigned over New York; and, by the terms of his commission, his rule stretched westward to the Pacific. The usual official courtesies passed between him and Denonville; but Andros renewed all the demands of his predecessor, claimed the Iroquois as subjects, and forbade the French to attack them. [15] The new governor was worse than the old. Denonville wrote to the minister: "I send you copies of his letters, by which you will see that the spirit of Dongan has entered into the heart of his successor, who may be less passionate and less interested, but who is, to say the least, quite as much opposed to us, and perhaps more dangerous by his suppleness and smoothness than the other was by his violence. What he has just done among the Iroquois, whom he pretends to be under his government, and whom he prevents from coming to meet me, is a certain proof that neither he nor the other English governors, nor their people, will refrain from doing this colony all the harm they can." [16][281] Winslow to Monckton, 3 Nov. 1755.